DOS NESA Past Examination: Good Luck

  1. What is curriculum?

Curriculum is a systematically organized boy of knowledge, skills and attitudes through which the goals of education can be achieved for the fulfillment of the needs and aspirations of a society.

  1. Identify three types of curriculum

Intended/written/ or official curriculum

It includes all school experiences, what to be learnt, the expected changes in behavior, the process involved, and the nature of techniques, approaches (methods) and other relevant equipment and facilities.

Enacted/ implemented curriculum

Through the complex classroom interactions, and what is delivered to learners is called intended/ implemented curriculum.

Hidden curriculum

The unintended development of personal values, and beliefs of learners, teachers and communities, the unexpected impact of curriculum and unforeseen aspects of a learning process.

  1. What is a key aspect of a quality learning environment?

Quality learning environment is

-student-centered teaching, in which teachers emphasize not only what the students learn but more importantly how they learn.

– Assessment is more than giving grade or degree to students.

  1. 4. Differentiate formative and summative assessment.

Formative assessment is defined by its purpose which is to help form or shape a student’s learning during learning process. It includes all those activities undertaken by teachers and/or by their students that provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.

-Formative assessment helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need more work.

-Helps teachers recognize where students are struggling and address problems immediately

– Enables teachers to build learner’s prior knowledge and match their teaching to the needs of each learner.

Examples of formative assessment


– Classwork/ homework

– Observations

Summative assessment is an appraisal of learning at the end of instructional unit or at a specific point in time. Summative evaluation usually includes grading or certification.

Example of summative assessment includes:

A mid-term exam

P6 national exam

A final project

5.a. What is the focus of competence based curriculum?

Competence based curriculum focuses on knowledge, skills and attitudes.

  1. What should be assessed in continuous assessment?

Knowledge and understanding

Practical skills

Attitudes and values

And generic competences

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